moss.jpg


Seedless vascular plants include ferns, whisk ferns, club mosses, and horsetails

(http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20102/Bio%20102%20lectures/Seedless%20Plants/seedless%20plants.htm)


Ferns and Their Relatives

-Ferns can thrive in areas with little light
-Pterophyta phylum
-Their spores are produced in sporangia
-Ferns and their relatives have true roots, leaves, and stems
-Roots are underground organs that absorb water and minerals
-Water conducting tissues are located in the center of the root
-Leaves are photosynthetic organ that contain one or more bundles of vascular tissue
-This is gathered into veins made of xylem and phloem
-Stems are supporting structures that connect roots and leaves, carrying water and nutrients between them (Biology copyright 2006 Pearson Education)
19.jpg
http://www.floraselect.co.uk/images/library/19.jpg

Club Mosses

-Small plants that live in moist woodlands
-Members of the genus Lycopodium, the comon club moss look like miniature pine trees.
-Produced some of Earth's first forests
-Once grew to 35 meters high
-Club mosses was once a large and ancient group of land plants
-Now exist as a much smaller group
-The fossilized remains of these forests exist today as huge beds of coal
-Today they are small plants that live in moist woodlands
-Look like mini pine tress and are sometimes called "ground pines" (Biology copyright 2006 Pearson Education)

http://www.paghat.com/images/clubmosscyclashell_mar.jpg
http://www.paghat.com/images/clubmosscyclashell_mar.jpg



Horsetails


-Scientific name is Equisetum from the order Arthophyta
-True leaves, stems, and roots
-Stems look similar to horse's tails from which they get there name from
-Horsetails usually grows about a meter tall
-Have true leaves, stems, and roots
-It’s nonphotosynthetic called like leaves are arranged in distinctive whorls at joints along the stem (Biology copyright 2006 Pearson Education)
http://www.library.uiuc.edu/vex/toxic/hrstail/6-29-19.jpg
http://www.library.uiuc.edu/vex/toxic/hrstail/6-29-19.jpg




Club Mosses

Horsetails
Ferns
Phylum

Lycophyta

Sphenophyta
Pterophyta
Examples

Lycopodium

Equisetum
Pteridium
Stem

plectostele
or actinostele
exarch

eustele
endarch
radial-reverse bicollateral
siphonostele
mesarch
amphiphloic
(bicollateral)
"Leaf"

microphyll

microphyll
megaphyll
"Root"

root

root
root
Sporangium

axil of microphyll;
(strobilus)

under sporangiophore;
strobilus
underside of megaphyll;
sori
Spores

Homosporous
Wind

Homosporous
Wall Elaters
Homosporous
(Heterosporous)
Annulus
Gametophyte

Heterotroph
(some photosynthetic)
Fungi

Autotroph
Autotroph
(http://plantphys.info/Plant_Biology/lvp.html)

4 phyla of seedless vascular plants: http://www.uncp.edu/home/kellyl/Botany%20Ch19%20Seedless%20Plants.htm

A. Phylum Psilotophyta (only 2 genera)

B. Phylum Lycopodophyta (club mosses)

C. Phylum Equisetophyta -- horsetails or scouring rushes

D. Phylum Pteridophyta -- ferns (~ 12,000 species; largest group of vascular plants next to flowering plants)

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