Gametophyte grows Sporophyte which produces spores, the spores grow into a male and female gametophyte, the male fertilizes the female (sperm must swim through water in environment), the sperm are produced with whiplike tails in the antheridia and the egg cells are produced in archegonia, then gametophyte grows into Sporophyte. (Biology copyright 2006 Pearson Education)

Sperm (n) + Egg (n)
Zygote (2n)
Growth by mitosis produces:
Embryo (2n)
Sporophyte (2n)
Sporangium (2n)
Meiosis in Sporangium produces:
Spore (n)
Growth by mitosis produces:
Gametophyte (n)
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Antheridium (n) Archegonium (n)
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Sperm (n) Egg (n)
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Bryophytes have life cycles that depend on water for reproduction. Lacking vascular tissue, these plants can draw up water by osmosis only a few centimeters above the ground.

*In bryophytes, the gametophytes is the dominant recognizable stage of the life cycle and is the stage that carries out most of the plants photosynthesis.
*Sporophyte depends on gametophyte for supplying water and nutrients.
*Sperm of a bryophyte must swim to an egg, they depend on water to do this so they must live where water is available at least part of the year (Biology copyright 2006 Pearson Education)

  • Produce a structure that looks like a tiny green umbrella that carrys the structures that produce eggs and sperm.
  • Gemmae are small multicellualr reproductive structures.

Bryophyte sexuality
These plants are generally gametophyte-oriented; that is, the normal plant is the haploid gametophyte, with the only diploid structure being the sporangium in season. As a result, bryophyte sexuality is very different from that of other plants. There are two basic categories of sexuality in bryophytes:
Some bryophyte species may be either monoicous or dioicous depending on environmental conditions. Other species grow exclusively with one type of sexuality.
Notice that these terms are not the same as monoecious and dioecious, which refer to whether or not a sporophyte plant bears one or both kinds of gametophyte. Those terms apply only to seed plants.
(courtesy of